What is an ankle sprain?
An ankle sprain is an injury to the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that surround and connect the bones of the leg to the foot. The injury typically happens when you accidentally twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the ligaments that hold your ankle bones and joints together.
All ligaments have a specific range of motion and boundaries that allow them to keep the joints stabilized. When ligaments surrounding the ankle are pushed past these boundaries, it causes a sprain. Sprained ankles most commonly involve injuries to the ligaments on the outside of the ankle.
You should call your doctor immediately if you sprain your ankle. Your doctor can determine the severity of the injury and recommend a proper course of treatment. It can take several weeks or months for a sprained ankle to heal completely.
WHAT CAUSES AN ANKLE SPRAIN?
An ankle sprain often occurs when the foot suddenly twists or rolls, forcing the ankle joint out of its normal position. This causes one or more ligaments around the ankle to stretch or tear. Some swelling or bruising can occur as a result of these tears. You may also feel pain or discomfort when you place weight on the affected area. Tendons, cartilage, and blood vessels might also be damaged due to the sprain.
Ankle sprains can happen to anyone at any age. Participating in sports, walking on uneven surfaces, or even wearing inappropriate footwear can all cause this type of injury.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF AN ANKLE SPRAIN?
You may have a sprained ankle if you notice the following symptoms in the ankle:
- inability to put weight on the affected ankle
- skin discoloration
The ankle can sustain many different types of injuries. Itís important to see your doctor when youíre experiencing problems with your ankle as they can determine whether the injury is a sprain or something more severe.
HOW IS AN ANKLE SPRAIN DIAGNOSED?
Your doctor will perform a physical exam to determine which ligaments have been torn. During the exam, your doctor may move your ankle joint in various ways to check your range of motion.
Imaging tests, such as X-rays, may also be ordered to rule out a bone fracture. An MRI may be done if your doctor suspects bone chipping, a serious injury to the ligaments, or damage to the surface of the ankle joint. The MRI test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body, allowing your doctor to make a proper diagnosis.
The surface of the ankle joint may be injured if the ligaments have been completely torn. If this is the case, then your ankle may be unstable even after the injury heals.
HOW IS AN ANKLE SPRAIN TREATED?
Treating a sprained ankle is important to promote recovery and to prevent further discomfort. Your doctor may provide you with some tips and items that you can use to care for the sprain while you recover. Itís important not to put weight on the injured area while youíre recovering from an ankle sprain.
You may be able to treat mild sprains at home. Recommended home care treatments include:
- Using elastic bandages (such as an ACE bandage) to wrap your ankle
- Wearing a brace to support your ankle
- Using crutches, if needed
- Elevating your foot with pillows while resting or sleeping. This will help reduce swelling
- Taking ibuprofen or panadol to manage swelling and pain
- Getting plenty of rest and not putting weight on your ankle.
Itís also helpful to apply ice to the injured area as soon as you can to reduce swelling. On the first day, you should apply ice every 20 to 30 minutes, three to four times per day. Afterward, it should be applied every three to four hours for the next two days.
Your doctor may tell you to stay off of your injured ankle until the pain subsides. For mild sprains, this may take a week to 10 days, while more severe sprains may take up to several weeks to heal.
Surgery is rare, but it may be performed when the damage to the ligaments is severe or when the injury doesnít improve with nonsurgical treatment. Surgical options include:
- Arthroscopy: a surgeon looks inside the joint to see if there are any loose fragments of bone or cartilage.
- Reconstruction: a surgeon will repair the torn ligament with stitches. They may also use other ligaments or tendons around the foot or ankle to repair the damaged ligaments.
The type of surgery needed will depend on the severity of your sprain and your activity level. After surgery, rehabilitation is a very important part of the recovery process. Youíll need to attend regular follow-up appointments with your doctor and complete physical therapy exercises to strengthen the ankle. Depending on the extent of your sprain and the type of surgery done, rehabilitation can take weeks or month.
WHAT IS THE LONG-TERM OUTLOOK?
In most cases, an ankle sprain isnít very serious and will completely heal with proper treatment. The amount of time required for a full recovery will depend on the severity of the sprain. Most ankle sprains take a few weeks to fully heal, a severe sprain may take months.
Although pain and swelling will eventually go away, your injured ankle may not be as stable as your unaffected ankle. Your doctor may suggest certain exercises to help strengthen the ankle.
HOW CAN I AVOID AN ANKLE SPRAIN?
You can lower your risk for future sprains by:
- wrapping the affected ankle in an elastic bandage
- wearing a brace, if necessary
- performing strengthening exercises
- avoiding high heels
- warming up before exercising
- wearing sturdy, quality footwear
- paying attention to surfaces youíre walking on
- slowing or stopping activities when you feel fatigued
When left untreated, an ankle sprain can lead to long-term pain and instability in the ankle so call your doctor immediately of suspect a sprain.